Somatotypes-types of body

SOMATOTYPES-types of body


SOMATOTYPES-TYPES OF BODY- Somatotypes refer to the shape of the human body as well as its physique. Great variation is found in the body structure of the individual. While some individuals have a flabby build, some are robust and some are lean and slim. Body structure depends on many factors such as heredity, growth, and development as well as the type of activities performed. People are born with an inherited body type based on skeletal frame and body composition. Due to different biological, psychological, social, geographical, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds, all individuals have different physical build characteristics.

SOMATOTYPES-TYPES OF BODY-Variation in size and attachment of muscle, the structure of the joint, and the length of the bone affect the performance of physical activities. Therefore, the study of the body structure of an individual becomes important for the classification of individuals for the instruction process, and for judging the suitability of an individual for some particular sports activity. Thus, somatotypes can be defined as the classification of the human body according to its shape, size, and structure.


read more-  factors influencing sports performance


The term SOMATOTYPES-types of body was devised for the classification of human physical types by W.H. SHELDON,  he classified the human body shape into three body types;



People with endomorphic body structures have a rounded physiques. Excessive body mass generally hinders their ability to compete in sports. These types of people have a soft, round build and a high proportion of fat. The body composition of such a person is pear-shaped. Endomorphs have wide hips and Shoulders, short and thick necks, and short arms and legs. There is a lot of fat all over their body, especially the arms and thighs. The endomorph body types store more fat than average, get tired easily, and have a larger appetite, thus making it difficult to lose weight. Their build is wider than the older two types, with a larger bone structure, and more strength, accompanied by significantly more body fat.

  • They have good digestion and also digest food well.
  • Their feet are also wide and with low arches.
  • They have a round head with a wide face, a square jaw, and small ears.
  • They always over-evaluate their abilities.
  • Their skin is thick and thick-haired.
  • Their stomach is large, full above the navel
  • Their neck is short and thick and the chest is broad.
  • Their palms are wide and their fingers are short.
  • Mostly it has been seen that they do this work first and then think.
  • They are less secretive and are fond of giving speeches in public places.
  • Their buttocks and legs are heavy.
  • He participates in events like powerlifting, wrestling, and throwing.
 Advantage Of Endomorphs types of structure
  • The body of Endomorphs is best suited for powerlifting and weight lifting as they have a high level of strength.
  • They can be good swimmers and Excel in sports such as shot put.
Disadvantages Of Endomorphs types of structure 
  • Endomorphs have poor physical fitness and, hence poor athletes.
  • Their body has a tendency to store fat. Hence, they are at risk of becoming obese.
  • They have endurance. Their excessive body weight does not allow them to perform well in activities that required agility, speed, or continuous aerobic exercise.

 That diet best suited to endomorphs is where each meal contains protein, vegetables, and some healthy fats. The idea is to aim for an Intake of 30% carbs, 35% protein, and 35% of fat. Simple carbohydrates are best avoided as these cause fat storage. They include white bread, white rice, pasta, cakes, and biscuits. Fruit is always a healthy addition.


 People with mesomorphic body structures have thick bones and muscles with rectangular-shaped bodies. They have larger and broader chests and Shoulders and can be good sportspersons. The body of a mesomorphic is muscular and strong in appearance. Mesomorphs have flat abdomens and athletic physiques. [SOMATOTYPES-TYPES OF BODY]They have a minimum amount of fat on their body, wide and broad shoulder, proportionate arms and legs, and thick bones and muscles.

  • He is a medium-type person and is also known as an athletic type person.
  • They are broad, hard, and have large bones and rectangular shapes.
  • Their belly is big and their waist is small.
  • Their neck is strong and long, their shoulders are broad and have strong bones.
  • Their facial bones are raised and elongated and the face is oval.
  • They are courageous, strong, and act fast when any problem arises.
  • He is very fond of taking risks.
Advantages of Mesomorphic types of structure
  • Since the mesomorphs of having low body fat, they excel in activities involving strength, agility, and speed.
  • They are very suitable for athletics as they have a balanced body structure and height.
  • They also responded well to cardiovascular resistance training in Sports.
Disadvantages of mesomorphic types of structure
  • They have average endurance and flexibility.
  • Mesomorphic tend to gain fat easily when they lead to a sedentary Lifestyle. Hence, they need to balance calorie intake and participate in physical activities regularly.


 Mesomorphs should mix up their carbohydrate choice to Include Fruits and Vegetables, whole grains such as quinoa, rice, and oats. These provide fiber as well as antioxidants and phytochemicals that repair exercise-induced muscle damage.


People are slim because their muscles and Limbs are elongated. Fashion models and basketball player fits this category. They have less strength but are dominant endurance sports. Being skinny, they have a light build and small joints, and lean muscle. They have thin shoulders, small hips, flat chest and abdomen, and thin arms and legs. They have lean muscle mass, elongated limbs, and low-fat content on their body.

  • Their digestive power is very weak.
  • His body looks very beautiful
  • Their face is small, the forehead and chin are tilted and the nose is pointed.
  • Their stomach is flattened above the navel.
  • Their hands are small but their fingers and tucks are long.
  • Their skin is thinner and hairier.
  • Their thinking is fast but their actions are very loose.
  • Their neck is long and thin. With long arms, their shoulders hang.
 Advantages Ectomorphic types of structure
  • Their long limbs provide an advantage in water sports and their slight upper body means their legs don’t have to haul as much weight.
  • The body structure of ectomorphs is suitable for activities like gymnastics, high jump, badminton, Tennis Table, Tennis, and volleyball.
  • Their fast metabolism burns fat very quickly.
 Disadvantages Ectomorphic types of structure

 The body of the ectomorphs is suitable for power or strength sports. Indulgence in such activities can result in injuries or deformities to their Anatomical structure. Thus they cannot perform well in sports like- wrestling, shot put, etc.

  • Ectomorphs generally cannot gain weight easily.
  • They lack physical strength and are usually weak and frail.
 Most people are not completely in one of three primary somatotypes but show traits of two or even all three somatotypes. The challenge with the method proposed by Sheldon and criticized because of the following.
  • The somatotypes change with age, physical activity, and diet.
  • Components of endomorphs and ectomorphs are inverse of each other.
  • Somatotyping omits the factors of size.

Currently, the method that finds favor with most experts is the heath-carter method. This can be used to classify body types at a given point in life and is an ongoing assessment. Diet and physical activity result in changing the classification over time.

 The difference between the heath-carter method and Sheldon’s classification is the dynamism of somatotypes. Sheldon’s classification puts somatotypes as being mostly constant throughout the lifetime. But the heath-carter method describes somatotypes having a wide variation in a lifetime.

 Sheldon classification is now recognized as the TRUNK INDEX METHOD. That trunk index method is the ratio of upper and lower torso areas. This measurement remains very constant throughout a person’s adult life, even the weight gain or loss.


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