COGNITIVE PROCESS IN PSYCHOLOGY – Cognitive is the kind of information in our memories and the process involves acquiring, retaining, and using the information collected is called the cognitive process.
THE COGNITIVE word comes from the LATIN word “COGNITO” which means to understand or apprehend.
Cognitive psychology is the part of psychology which studies mental process including how the individual or people think, perceive, remember, and try to learn. As a part of the vast area of cognitive science, the branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including philosophy, neuroscience, and linguistics. (Mastery in language)
THE central nervous system is capable of processing information, instruction from coach and teacher. In other words when a stimulus is given analysis and decision-making take place before the appropriate response takes place.
Cognitive psychology help in many ways like suggestion on how to help in improving our memories, enhancement of performance in a situation which demands concentration, such as referee in the match and so on……
COGNITIVE PROCESS IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IS CLASSIFIED INTO THREE INTRRELATIVE PARTS NAMELY
- RECEIVING INFORMATION
- PROCESSING INFORMATION
- STORING INFORMATION
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
Any stimulation or information that we receive through sensory organs is called sensation; that is received by our brain. It means to say that information reaches the brain through the parts of our body; called sensation, like hearing, to see, etc. The sensation is a pure knowledge which has no relation to our earlier knowledge and experience. The sensation can be called the Gate of Knowledge because our brain gets complete knowledge through this sensation. So we can say that the first stage of acquiring knowledge is that we all know that sensation occurs in all kinds of knowledge.
PERCEPTION is the active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information that comes to the brain through sensory organs. Understand an object or situation is called perception.
INFORMATION IS RECEIVED using SENSORY RECEPTORS
There are four types of nerve receptors in the body:
EXTRORECEPTORS: – located on the surface of the skin which gives information about heat and cold, pressure, size, etc.
INTRORECEPTORS: – located in the internal organs of the body example; hunger, fatigue which feels internally.
PROPREOCEPTORS: – located in the muscle and joints of the body which gives information about the body and limbs.
DISTANCE RECEPTOR: – located in the eye and ears and provides information about distance. The effector system oversees the transmission of information from the central nervous system to the muscle.
COGNITIVE PROCESS IN PSYCHOLOGY
CHARACTERISTICS OF SENSATION
NATURE: – Sensation has a specific nature. Two sensations cannot be one. Exemplar 2 player’s voice and cannot have one per shadow.
INTENSITY: – The second element of sensation is intensity, if two sounds are produced simultaneously, one of them must be sharp.
DURATION: – Every sensation stays in the person for a certain time. Sensation Depends on the Ability of Every Individual.
EXTENSITY: – This is the element of sensation which is not found in every sensation like we can see an object only to a certain extent, but the loud sound can be heard from very far, it is possible due to sensation.
CLARITY: – Each sensation is pre-clear and the sensation that lasts for a long time is clearer.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCEPTION
SELECTIVITY: – There are various kinds of reception in the human body. All of them are capable of receiving a lot of data and information at a time, But we cannot receive all the information around us. We can only perceive only important and relevant matters.
MOTIVATION: – Motivation influences perception. The person must be interested in the task. The focus of attention should be on the task then will be perceiving only important matter motivation brings concentration
PAST EXPERIENCE: – It covers memory and knowledge of the strategy. In perception, anticipation plays an important role. It can be developed through past process experience, knowledge of strategy.
VISUAL SENSE: – There are various kinds of visual sense involve in the sports activity. A hallucination: – “experience involving the apparent perception of something not present” is a mental state in which a person beings to perceive something despite the absence of any external stimulus.
PERIPHERAL VISION: – All which is visible outside the central area of focus; side vision.
TACTILE RECEPTOR: – Tactile sense or receptors are very closely related to kinesthetic sense. It helps an individual to detect the touch and pressure. It’s located in the nerve ending near the surface of the body. This provides the central nervous system information about cold, heat, shape, size, pressure, and also the information about feet of movement.