AAHPER YOUTH PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST
The AAHPER youth physical fitness test was created in 1957. The full form of AAHPER is American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. American Alliance for health, physical education constructed a youth fitness test battery for assessing the fitness level [Hunsicker-1957-58].
AAPHER test helps to evaluate muscular strength, flexibility, agility, cardiovascular endurance, and coordination. During the years 1957-58 these tests were applied to approx 8000 school children of classes 5 to 8 in the USA. On the basis of this study, standard rooms were created. Studied were conducted on 2200 college-level students in 1960 and percentile rooms were created, similarly, percentile rooms were created on the basis of studies belonging to 50 institutions. New percentile rooms were created again in 1965 on the basis of age. This study included 9200 boys and girls in the 10 to 17 years of age group.
The following events of the test were included of these seven test items in the AAHPER youth physical fitness test:-
- Pull ups[for boys], Flexed arms [for girls],
- Shuttle run,
- Standing broad jump,
- 50-yard dash run,
- Softball throw,
- 600-yard walk or run,
In 1976 AAHPER youth fitness test was again revised and the following modification was made;
- The softball throw test item was deleted.
- The fixed number of straight leg sit-up tests was changed to bent knee sit-ups performed in 60 seconds.
PULL-UPS [boys] and FLEXED ARMS HANG [girls]
REQUIRED EQUIPMENT FOR PULL-UPS- Horizontal bar, an approximately 1.5-inch rod made of wood or metal is suitable. The doorway gym bar can also be used if there is no equipment.
PULL-UPS TEST ADMINISTRATION FOR BOYS- The height of the horizontal bar should be such that when the participant hangs from it with fully extended arms; his feet should not touch the ground. The participant is asked to use an overhand hand grasp with the palm facing away from the body. When in a hanging position, the participant raises the body with the arms until the chin is placed over the bar, and then lowers the body to full extension and does the pull-up as many times as possible. The attendee is given only one opportunity unless it is clear that the participant has not had a fair chance, swinging, kicking the leg, or raising the knee is allowed while doing pull-ups.
SCORING- The maximum number of complete pull-ups is the score that can be evaluated or compared with another participant.
FLEXED ARM HANG [girls]
The flexed arm hang test is also almost identical to the pull-up, except that the hanging bar is adjusted to a height equal to the height of the participant. Female participant pulls body off the floor to keep chin above the bar, elbows bent, chest kept close to bar and participant tries to maintain this position for as long as possible.
As soon as the participant takes the hanging position and the assistants help the subject to raise the body and no longer touch the participant, the stopwatch is started, as soon as the following conditions are observed, the stopwatch is stopped;
- If the head tilts back to keep the chin above the bar.
- If the chin touches the bar.
- If the chin drops below the level of the bar.
SCORING- The duration of time that the participant correctly maintains the hanging position, the amount of time she remains in the correct position is counted as the time score.
BENT KNEE SITUPS
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR BENT KNEE SIT-UPS- A mat, appropriate lying area, and a stopwatch.
TEST ADMINISTRATION- In this test, the participant is asked to lie on his back, with knees bent, feet on the floor and heels not more away than 12 inches from the buttocks. The angle at both knees should be less than 90 degrees. The participant should have the hands behind the knees at less than 90 degrees. The participant has to place their hands on the back of the neck with the fingers intertwined and the elbows square on the mat. A helper or partner has to hold onto the participant’s feet to keep them in contact with the surface. The participant is asked to tighten the abdominal muscles and bring the head and elbows forward as he sits on end to touch the elbows to the knees. The whole process above constitutes a sit-up. The participant is asked to return to the starting position and sit down again.
After giving the above performance to the participant, a READY-GO signal is given to a specific participant. On signal GO the performer initiates the sit-up and the timer starts the clock simultaneously. The participant continues the sit-ups at their best possible speed until the timer gives a stop signal after 60 seconds.
SCORING –The number of correctly performed sit-ups in 60 seconds is the score of this test. Only one effort is allowed to the participant unless the tester believes that the subject has not a fair opportunity. The following types of sit-ups are not counted for score.
- If the participant does not keep the fingers closed behind the neck.
- If the participants bring both elbows forward in starting to the sit-ups with pushing off the floor with an elbow.
- If the participant return to starting position with the elbow flat on the surface.
REQUIRED PIECES OF EQUIPMENT – Two blocks of wood to measure [2” ×2 ″ ×4 ″], a stopwatch, and marking tape. The participant must wear spikes or appropriate sports shoes or run barefoot.
TEST ADMINISTRATION-Two parallel lines are marked on the floor 10 yards [9.114 m] apart, the width of a regular basketball or volleyball court can also be used for the shuttle run test. Two wooden blocks are placed behind a line. The participant is asked to start from the back of the second line. On the Signal READY GO, the timer starts the clock and the participant has to run fast toward the block, pick up a block, and run back to the first line, placing the block behind the first line and running again to pick up the second block. The second block also brings to the first line. As soon as the second block is placed on the ground, the timer stops the clock and records the time.
SCORING- participant is allowed to take two trials with some rest in between. The time is taken for the good result of the best of two tests. It is recorded to the nearest tenth of a second which is the score of the test item.
STANDING BROAD JUMP
This test measures leg power in jumping horizontal distances and can be applied to children of both sexes aged seven years and older.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED– Floor, mat, or long jump pit can be used for measuring tape, masking tape, or chalk.
TRIAL ADMINISTRATION – A group of participants is given a standing wide jump demonstration for the test. The subject is then asked to stand behind the starting line with the feet parallel to each other. He is instructed to jump as far as possible by bending his knees and swinging his arms to take a wide jump in the forward direction. The participant is given three trials.
SCORING – The distance between the starting line and the nearest point of landing provides the test’s scores. The best trails are used as the final score of the test.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED- a stopwatch, flat surface area fur run.
TEST ADMINISTRATION-Two lines are marked 50 yards apart on the floor. The first line is used as the starting line and the second as the finish line. At the signal READY GO, participants start running with all their might to cross the finish line as quickly as possible. The timer at the finish line is signaled by a visual signal such as a downward sweep or a whistle.
SCORING-The interval between the initial signal and the immediate participant in the time taken to cross the finish line which is the score of the test. The time is entered correctly up to the 10th of a second.
600 YARD RUN-WALK Or 1 MILE RUNS WALK Or 1.5 RUN WALK TEST ITEM
EQUIPMENT- Track or mark area and stopwatch.
TEST ADMINISTRATION- The participant is asked to perform a standing start. At the ready signal go, the participant starts running a distance of 600 yards. The trial usually starts with 10 to 12 participants, with the participants forming a pair or two to start the race. The participant is allowed to walk but the participant has to cover this distance in the shortest possible time.
SCORING- The time taken to run 600 yards is recorded in minutes and seconds which is the score of this test object.
1 MILE 1.1 MILE RUN WALK-
This is similar to a 600-yard run-walk. The performer has to run 1 mile in a space of 600 yards and the time taken is recorded.
9 MINUTE OR 12 MINUTE RUN WALK
At the single ready-go, the participant covers as much distance as possible in the nine minutes or 12 minutes. If the running area is marked off every 200 yards, the tester can count the number of laps completed and additional incomplete lap distance covered in 9 or 12 minutes respectively. Although the tester has to encourage all the participants to run the entire period of 9 or 12 minutes but interspersed walking is allowed and the total distance covered exactly in 9 or 12 minutes is recorded correctly up to one yard.
VALIDITY OF AAHPER YOUTH PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST
The test has been found quite valid as various test items of the AAHPER test battery are found to correlate significantly with various motor or physical fitness factors. Thus, it may be concluded that the AAHPER test possesses fractional validity.