WHAT IS SPEED IN SPORTS TRAINING
What is Speed in Sports Training- It is the ability to perform any movement in the minimum time. Speed is a conditional ability. It depends on the central nervous system. It is one of the fitness components. Fast-twitch fibers have a huge contribution to speed ability, and speed also depends on genetic factors and coordination processes.
Speed ability cannot be improved but can be improved to some extent by improving coordination and Techniques. It depends on the number of fast-twitch fibers present in the person’s body. Speed ability cannot be improved through training by more than 20% to 25%. Performing any motor ability action in the shortest time is called speed. It varies according to each game because the movement of each sport is different.
DEFINITION OF SPEED IN SPORTS
“The capacity of an individual to perform successive movement of the same pattern at a faster rate” By BARROW AND MCGEE
TYPES OF SPEED IN SPORTS TRAINING
Reaction ability is the ability that reacts in the shortest possible time of action. It depends completely upon on coordinative process or the ability to react quickly or effectively to any signal or action. It totally depends on our sensory system that how quickly we perceive, process, and respond to external stimuli; they can be auditory, visual, or kinaesthetic means touch sense. Reaction ability can be divided into two types:-
- Simple Reaction Ability- In Simple Reaction Ability, the player knows when he is going to get the signal and when he has to react according to that signal. Example- 100-meter sprinter knows he has to run when a gunshot is fired.
- Complex Reaction Ability- In this ability, the players who receive the signal are unexpected because the player does not know when and how he is going to get the signal. Like watching cock in badminton, boxing punch, etc
It is the ability to perform any movement in the minimum possible time. It directly depends on the Explosive strength, techniques, flexibility, and coordinative abilities of an individual. It can be measured by a reflex action test. Example- high jump.
It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from a stationary position. This is the speed that achieves the position of stability and low speed in a short time to the highest self-propelled speed. The self-driving ability of high-speed runners develops many factors. The ability to accelerate depends on explosive strength, technique, and flexibility. The ability to accelerate is used in almost all sports.
SPEED ENDURANCE ABILITY
It the combination of speed and endurance. In speed endurance the ability to perform the movement with maximum speed under the condition of fatigue. Speed endurance mainly depends on lactic acid tolerance ability and muscular endurance. Example- Basketball, football, 800-meter sprint, etc.
It is the ability to maintain a maximum speed of locomotion for the maximum possible distance or time. It is also used on daily basis. Example- 200 meters, 400 meters.
what is the speed in sports training
FACTOR AFFECTING SPEED
- EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH– Explosive strength depends on muscle size, composition, and coordination. It also depends on the metabolic process. If a boxing player does not have explosive power, he cannot hit the punch with speed; a jumper will not be able to jump high if the leg of the long jumper or high jumper athletes does not have the explosive strength.
- TECHNIQUE – Technique is the most important factor for speed execution. The goal of the technique is to use internal strength and not to use external power. The player who does not know the technique of sitting and running correctly is unable to tell his execution at the time of the race.
- MOBILITY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM- Fibers are considered to be a key factor in developing the execution of action motions. The rapid contraction and expansion of muscles made possible by rapid excitation and inhabitation of the concerned motor centers. The instability of motion is developed by fiber action.
- MUSCLE COMPOSITION – It is natural that the composition of muscles is genetically determined, and it cannot be changed later by training. Basically, the composition of muscles is of two types, fast-twitch fiber, and slow-twitch fiber. An athlete who has a high percentage of fast-twitch fibers contracted his muscles more quickly than the athlete who has slow-twitch fiber muscles, which makes him move faster.
- BIOCHEMICAL RESERVES AND METABOLIC POWER- ATP and CP should be stored in sufficient quantity in the muscles. If energy is released faster in our body, then speed will also be faster. It is generally seen that players are starting to use such substances which produce energy in the body immediately.
- PSYCHIC FACTOR- It depends on the psychological situation. For example, if a dog runs after someone to bite him, the man starts running faster than his normal speed.
WHAT ARE THE METHOD TO IMPROVE SPEED
In this method, an athlete increases speed especially attaining maximum speed from a stationary position, and distance remains predetermined such as 50 meters to 60 meters. It helps to develop the acceleration part of speed. The acceleration run method is highly effective for sprinters.
- Distance – 50 to 60 meter,
- Speed- 90 to 100%,
- Repetition- 8 t 12 times,
- Recovery time- 25 seconds to 2 minutes. [with active rest]
what is speed in sports training
In this method, an athlete covers the whole distance at the same pace or a constant speed. It helps to develop a speed of movement and constant speed. It can be divided into two types:-
RACING PACE RUN METHOD– In this method, an athlete focused on the racing pace which is according to the competition requirement, and tries to maintain that pace until the full distance is covered.
VARIED PACE RUN METHOD- In the method, the athlete brings a lot of variation in running like in the entire distance it runs at a fast speed and sometimes at a slow speed. This method is mostly adopted by athletes to enhance their speed ability.
- Distance- 200 to 800 meter,
- Speed- 70 to 90%,
- Repetition- 4 to 6 times,
- Recovery time- 3 to 5 minutes.
OTHER METHODS TO IMPROVE SPEED ABILITY
- Plyometrics training helps to develop speed abilities such as hopping, jumping, etc.
- Ballistics method can also use to develop speed ability.
- Downhill and uphill running play a major role in the development of muscular strength which helps to develop speed ability.
READ MORE ABOUT – WHAT IS FLEXIBILITY AND ITS TYPES