Different types of vitamins

Different types of vitamins

DIFFERENT TYPES OF VITAMINS, AND ITS FUNCTIONS, SOURCE, DEFICIENCY ETC

 

VITAMIN A

Different types of vitamins- Vitamin A was discovered in the early years of the 19th century by Dr. McCallum and Davis. They found out from the experiments conducted on mice that when rats were kept on eating butter and egg yolk, these rats were much stronger than the rats that had only pig fat and vegetables in their diet. He concluded that butter and egg yolk contain ingredients that are not found in pig fat and vegetables; he discovered vitamin A in the year 1913 from butter and egg yolk.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Vitamin A is found in many forms like retinol, retinal and retinoic acid, etc. All these forms can be called vitamin A. Vitamin A in its pure form is a mixture of rivets, whose color is light yellow. It is naturally found in animals. It can dissolve in fat or in a mixture containing fat solvent, but cannot dissolve in water. It is relatively stable in heat, acid, and alkali. It is easily oxidized and is destroyed by precipitate by trans-violet radiation.

The basic source of all types of vitamins is carotene, which is synthesized in plants. Both animals and humans get some vitamin A from their food. Carotene is also ruddy, but its color is dark red. These are called early forms of vitamin A. Carotene’s alpha, beta, and gamma molecules have great importance in a nutritious diet. Beta carotene is converted into vitamin A retinol in the body.

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A

Vitamin A is necessary for easy viewing in low light. There are two types of cells in the retina -Rhodes, and cones, of which Rhodes helps in seeing less light and cones in bright light. Rhodopsin present in Rhodes is made from a combination of a type of protein and vitamin a. Rhodopsin decomposes into elements in bright light, and in low light, these elements combine with vitamin A and protein to form rhodopsin.

Different types of vitamins

  • Vitamin A is necessary to maintain the mucous membrane [epithelium] in the body in a form, especially to keep the epithelium membrane healthy in the eyes, mouth, respiratory, digestive system, and genitals. Due to the normalization of this membrane, the body avoids the entry of bacteria.
  • Vitamin A is also necessary for the development of body structure and teeth.
  • Vitamin A also helps in protecting the body from various diseases.

 

FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN A

Vitamin A is mainly obtained from food obtained from animals like Fresh fish, oil, etc.

This is also found in butter, cheese, and egg yolk. Vitamin A is not found in the food found in plants, but its initial form is carotene in all such plants. Vitamin A is found in every plant whose leaf green and yellow in color. The greenery of plant leaf depends on the amount of carotene obtained in it.

  • Vegetables with green leaves – Spinach, turnip leaves, coriander, etc.
  • Yellow-colored vegetables – carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, etc.
  • Yellow-colored fruits – papaya, mango, rosemary, peach, etc.

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN A

The proposed quantity of vitamin A for adults is 600 micrograms. This requirement is 4800 micrograms as beta carotene. Minor formulas are used to interchange beta-carotene and retinol.

1 MICRO GRAM BETA CAROTENE = 0.25 MICRO GRAM RETINOL

If the diet contains both retinol and beta carotene, then the amount of vitamin A is extracted in the following way

Retinol content [mg] = micro gram retinol + micro gram beta carotene 0.25

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN A

  • Due to deficiency of vitamin A, the function of the mucosa is worked and keratinization occurs. It also increases the chances of contagion in the eyes, nasal foramen, middle ear, pharynx, mouth, respiratory tract, and genitals

Different types of vitamins

  • The important symptom of deficiency of this vitamin is dryness of skin and spots. This type of skin is called toad skin.

 

  • The changes that occur in the eyes due to vitamin A deficiency are called xerophthalmia. Blindness is a major life health problem due to xerophthalmia.
  1. The biggest symptom of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness, which causes the person to stop appearing after dusk or in low light. After this, there is conjunctival xerosis in which the conjunctiva dries up.
  2. Apart from this, triangle spots like dried foam are seen in the conjunctiva, which are CALLED BITOT SPOTS. First of all, the cornea appears dry, glabrous, this condition is called xerosis cornea. In the second condition, the condition of keratomalacia is produced, in which the cornea becomes soft, and becomes taut. After this condition, even the person’s eyes cannot be saved by treatment and the person becomes blind.

 

VITAMIN D

 Vitamin D was discovered in the 1930s as a clarified substance, it is called calciferol, it is also called anti-rickets.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS VITAMIN D

Vitamin D is a group of sterol mixtures that contain resistant substances. Of these, only two are related to nutritional science – vitamin d2 or ergocalciferol is found in plants. Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is found in animal cells and is formed as a result of action on 7 dehydrocholesterol present in the skin of ultraviolet light. Pure vitamin D is a blended mixture. It is soluble in fat and fat legislators, but it cannot dissolve in water. They are stable in heat, alkali, and oxygen. Different types of vitamins

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D

  • Vitamin D controls the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine. This makes bones and teeth strong. This vitamin affects our eye membrane, which leads to higher absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Similarly, vitamin D is required for the deposition of calcium in bones and teeth.
  • Vitamin D regulates the enzyme of alkaline phosphorus, which controls the phosphate in the body.

 

FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN D

  • Vitamin D is found in animal foods. It is most commonly found in fish oil. It is also found in sufficient quantities in eggs and butter. It is also found in substances made from very fresh milk.
  • The second source of vitamin D is sunlight, due to the ultraviolet rays of sunlight, the former form of vitamin D which is already present in the skin becomes active.

 

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN D

200 IU of vitamin D, is considered essential for the body, the deficiency of this vitamin can be met if the body remains in the sun for some time every day.

 

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN D

Different types of vitamins

  • Children become rickets due to deficiency of vitamin D.
  • This is a condition in which calcium and phosphorus are always deficient in quantity. Due to this, the formation of bones stops, and the mineral elements in the bones that have been formed begin to erode.
  • Due to this, the form of the limbs starts to get distorted, they get swollen and the ribs start to turn and they start forming knots like pearls. This situation is called a rachitic rosary. The bones which are long begin to widen from the edge and turn instead of being straight. This causes the knees to bend the ankle [KNOCK KNEE].
  • The bone of the reed bends to bow. BOW LEGS
  • Another symptom of deficiency of this vitamin is that the skull bone of infants starts to soften, due to lack of vitamin, there is a disease called osteomalacia and osteoporosis, which makes the bones shabby and easy, breaks down.

 

VITAMIN E

Ewan and Bishop have proposed that a fat-soluble substance is required for breeding in mice. They proved that the lack of vitamin E in this element means that fertility in mice is lost. Hence, it is also called Antistereality vitamin.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS VITAMIN D

Vitamin E is contained in certain chemical elements, called tocopherols. Alpha-tocopherol is a mixture that contains the most vitamins E. This vitamin is not destroyed in high temperature and alkali, but in the presence of sour fat, lead, iron salts, it starts oxidizing. Similarly, in the presence of ultraviolet light, alkali, and oxygen, it starts decomposing.

 

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D

  • The main function of vitamin E is to act as an antioxidant. It dissolves with oxygen and does not allow the oxidation of vitamin A in the intestines, and vitamin A remains.
  • Vitamin E minimizes oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and thus maintains the cell membrane
  • Vitamin aids in the creation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, it helps in the recovery of the energy of carbohydrates and fats in the synthesis of an enzyme called q.
  • Vitamin E has been found to be essential in some animals to maintain their fertility.
  • Vitamin E found in wheat, seedling oil, and cottonseed oil. Vitamins are also found in dark leaves, girder fruits, and pulses.
  • Although vitamin E is found in small amounts in animal-borne foods, milk, eggs, liver are found in plenty.
  • Children get adequate amounts of vitamin E from breast milk. But it is found in small quantities in cow’s milk.

 

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN D

0.8 milligrams of vitamin E per gram of unsaturated fatty acids can be fixed according to need. By taking vegetable oil and vegetation in our food, our body gets a sufficient amount of Vitamin E.

 

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN D

  • Due to deficiency of Vitamin E, the number of red granules in the blood decreases and the number becomes anemia.
  • The amount of tocopherol in premature babies is less.
  • Some of the animals have something in which their fertility is lost due to lack of vitamin A.
  • Vitamin E deficiency is less common in humans

 

VITAMIN K

Hendrix Dam 1935 discovered that mice can be saved from dying in case of heavy bleeding when their blood has the maximum freezing properties. This property is possible with a sufficient amount of vitamin k, so it is also called an antihemorrhagic vitamin.

In nature, vitamin k is found in two forms k-1 alpha, in alpha, and k-2 is synthesized by microorganisms. It is fat-soluble. It is not destroyed by heat but is destroyed by alkali, strong acid oxidation, and light.

Different types of vitamins

FUNCTION OF VITAMIN K

  • Vitamin K is required in the synthesis of prothrombin and other freezing proteins in the liver. It is helpful in converting prothrombin to thrombin in the process of blood coagulation.
  • Vitamin K may also be helpful in oxidative phosphorylation in tissues.

FOOD SOURCE OF VITAMIN K

Vitamin K is mainly found in plants. It is found in abundance in the leaves of vegetables like spinach, cabbage, cauliflower. It is found in small quantities in cereals, fruits, and other vegetables. Pig liver is the main source of animal food.

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN K

It is not possible to propose anything about its daily intake due to the synthesis in the intestine and the diversity in the food. There is no problem with the lack of vitamin K in food.

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY VITAMIN K

  • The deficiency of this vitamin is mostly due to faulty absorption, or liver dysfunction, which affects the synthesis of prothrombin.
  • More bleeding occurs as a result of less amount of prothrombin in the blood and other causes of blood clotting.
  • This deficiency is most common in premature babies or children who do not have enough oxygen in their body, and in mothers who take anticoagulant medicines.

 

Different types of vitamins WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

Different types of vitamins
Different types of vitamins

VITAMIN B COMPLEX GROUP

Thiamine is also called ANTI BERI-BERI VITAMIN. It was synthesized in 1936 Beri-beri disease was seen in countries where 80% of the diet was rice. In countries such as Indonesia, doctors found that full treatment of beriberi can be done by feeding rice bran extract. It has been found that there is an element in rice bran that is removed during milling; it is helpful in preventing BERI-BERI. This element was identified as thiamine.

Thiamine hydrochloride is a white ribbed element. It has a mild yeast smell and tastes like a salty kernel. It dissolves in the water soon, but it does not dissolve in fat solvents. It is quickly destroyed by heating in a normal or alkaline solution. In an acidic medium, it can remain stable at 120 ° C.

FUNCTION OF VITAMIN B

  • It acts in oxidation functions as thymine pyrophosphate, a co-enzyme in the metabolism of energy.
  • This is necessary for the metabolism of carbs, due to its deficiency; there is an accumulation of pyruvic acid and alpha-ketoglutaric acid, lactic acid in the tissues and body.
  • Thiamine is also essential for a good appetite and digestive power. It is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses.

Different types of vitamins

FOOD SOURCE OF VITAMIN B

Thiamine is found in limited quantities in all types of food. It is mainly found in dried yeast, all types of cereals and pulses, oilseeds and nuts, especially peanuts. It is found relatively less in fish, eggs, vegetables, and fruits. The germination and fermentation of cereals and pulses double their quantity.

 

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN B

The daily energy requirement of thiamine is proposed according to the energy requirement per thousand kilograms of calories.

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY VITAMIN B

Lack of thiamine causes beriberi and Wernick’s encephalopathy. Beri-beri is found in three forms, dry, moist and infertile. There is a slight loss of appetite, the ankle and knee turn, causing discomfort and sensation. The three forms of Beri-beri are as follows-

WET BERI BERI

Inflammation is its main symptom. It grows very fast and is visible in the abdomen, in addition to the feet, and also in the face. You experience nervousness and difficulty in breathing. Swelling and stiffness are seen in the muscles of the calf. Diastolic blood pressure decreases and systolic increases. The rate of pulse increases, the heart becomes weak and heart failure dies.

DRY BERI-BERI

The initial symptoms are the same as the wet stomach. Constant loss of muscles and increasing weakness makes it difficult to walk and wood has to be used to stand and walk. Finally, you have to stay in bed, death can also happen.

BERI-BERI IN INFANTS

Lack of thiamine in breast milk is seen in infants dependent on breast milk. It is more widespread in Southeast Asian countries, where polished rice is used in the diet leading to a deficiency of thiamine.

Different types of vitamins

VITAMIN B2 AND RIBOFLAVIN

This vitamin is sour in taste, orange in color, and odorless. And its raves are -like needles. It dissolves somewhat less in water and a yellow aura appears for the green element from it. It remains the same when it is boiled in acid, but if it is put in an alkali solution, kept on heat, then it starts to disintegrate soon. It also gets destroyed in light.

FUNCTION OF VITAMIN B2

  • Riboflavin, like thiamine, is combined with enzymes and helps in the oxidation of tissues to produce energy. Thus, it is helpful as a co-enzyme in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Its associate enzymes are flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide.
  • Riboflavin also has protective functions, it is necessary for the skin, eyes, and nerves to remain healthy.

 

FOOD SOURCE OF VITAMIN B2

It is most commonly obtained from dried yeast. It is also found in good quantity in milk, liver, meat, eggs, and green vegetables. It is obtained in sufficient quantity from lentils, grains, and fermented substances.

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY VITAMIN B2

Its deficiency condition is called Ariboflavinosis. Its symptoms are such as tearing of the corners of the mouth, reddening of the lips, cheilosis, reddening of the jib, redness of the eye, and experiencing a burning sensation, swelling in the genitals, etc.

Different types of vitamins

NIACIN AND NICOTINIC ACID

It is found as a white, pungent flavored rave. It dissolves normally in hot water but only in small amounts in cold water. It is stable in heat, alkali, acid, light, and oxidation. In fact, it is the most permanent vitamin. Niacin is found in two forms Niacin and the preceding Niacin ie Tryptophan. In the human body, 1.0 mg of the vitamin is obtained from 50 to 70 mg tryptophan. Therefore, if there is a large amount of tryptophan in any food, then a sufficient amount of niacin is obtained in that food, no matter how low the niacin is in that food.

FUNCTION OF VITAMIN NIACIN

  • Niacin soon becomes nicotinamide in the body, which is an ingredient of the enzyme. NAD and NADP enzymes are essential for the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
  • It is also essential for the proper functioning of the skin, digestive system, and nervous system.

FOOD SOURCE OF VITAMIN NIACIN

It is found in sufficient quantities in eggs, meat, and fish. It is also found in sufficient quantity in peanuts and grains. It is found in potatoes, legumes, and some leafy vegetables, but is not found in most fruits and vegetables. Niacin content in sprouted or fermented substances increases.

PROPOSED DAILY DIETARY QUANTITY VITAMIN NIACIN

 

Its daily required quantity is up to 6.5 mg/kcal.

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY VITAMIN NIACIN

Different types of vitamins

Niacin deficiency causes a disease called pellagra, its initial symptoms are; Tiredness, headache, underweight, loss of weight, loss of appetite, etc.

There are three main symptoms of the disease-

  • Dermatitis occurs in the part of the body that remains open, such as the back of the hand came out, legs, face, and throat. In the initial stage, skin rashes appear as if caused by scorching sunlight, there is redness and swelling in the skin, in the absence of treatment, the skin gets torn and gets infected. When the deficiency is filled, the skin appears dry and light in the condition of improvement.
  • Reddening of the TOUNG and diarrhea are the main symptoms related to the digestive system.
  • Redness and infection in the mucous membrane of the oral cavity can also occur. Diarrhea can also occur several times in a day, in which blood and mucus may also occur.
  • A man remains impatient, becomes irritable, and becomes a noun. If dementia is not diagnosed, then death can also occur.
  • Pellagra is seen in the poor population of Africa, China, and India due to a lack of other nutrients like protein, other B group vitamins. Symptoms of pellagra are also seen due to lack of tryptophan in the diet and lack of riboflavin required for its niacin changes.

Different types of vitamins

ASCORBIC ACID OR VITAMIN C

Vitamin C is a white-colored mixture. It has a relatively simple structure and is closely related to mono-monosaccharide’s sugars. It is prepared by mixing glucose at a low cost. Vitamin C is destroyed sooner than other vitamins; it is destroyed soon by water, light, alkali, and oxidizing enzymes. It is often destroyed in storage, processing, and cooking.

FUNCTION OF VITAMIN C

  • It is necessary for the formation and reservation of a protein called collagen, which is spread throughout our body. Collagen is a synthesized substance that binds all the cells of our body.
  • Vitamin C is extremely important in the production of tissues after the operation.
  • It performs important functions in the normal metabolism of amino acids.
  • It converts ferric ion to ferrous ion, thereby easily absorbing the absorption of the iron element from the intestine.

FOOD SOURCE OF VITAMIN C

This vitamin predominantly; comes from fruits and vegetables. It is found in abundance in lemon, grape, watermelon, pineapple, guava, pear, green vegetables. It does not occur in dry beans at all, but when seedlings come out, then it is found 7 times more. Milk, eggs, meat do not have this at all. Ascorbic acid in mother’s milk is 4 to 6 times that of animal milk, which protects the baby from scurvy.

DISEASE DUE TO DEFICIENCY VITAMIN C

  • Lack of ascorbic acid stops the formation of an element called collagen, which is a synthesis substance.
  • Some of the symptoms of deficiency are more like mild joint pain, irritability, growth of infants and children, anemia, difficulty in breathing, late healing of the wound.
  • Due to excess deficiency of ascorbic acid, it is known as scurvy. In this disease, the gums swell, and blood starts coming out of them. Bleeding occurs in many places, anemia and weakness occur. A disease called complete scurvy does not appear that much but the lack of ascorbic acid is often seen.

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